1) Adolf Hitler remilitarized the Rhineland in 1936, and then in 1938, unified Germany with Austria and fomented unrest among German minorities in Czechoslovakia. But Western European countries, namely France and Great Britain, did not give any response to his actions despite the fact that he violated the Treaty of Versailles. What were the reasons of such inaction from these previously dominating powers?
2) As we know, World War II embraced the whole world, millions of people died, and women were drawn into the conflict in an unprecedented way. What was the role of women in this total war? Did the war conditions empower them and bolster their rights, or, on contrary, disempower them and diminish their rights?
3) After World War II, a confrontation between two global powers, the U.S. and U.S.S.R, evolved, called the Cold War. They competed in political, economic, and cultural spheres. What were the main causes of the conflict between these two powers, who had been allies in World War II?
1) President Harry S. Truman said that “the United Nations is designed to make possible lasting freedom and independence for all its members” (Shaping,pg. 389) After World War II this international agreement of unity served as a “world police” to ensure the peace and security of nation states. What contrasted between the UN pact and the League of Nations from post WWI? What factors contributed to the success of the UN compared to the League of Nations?
2) Well aware of the financial/economic implications that the Truman Doctrine would have for the U.S., President Truman took the risk and and announced for $400,000,000 to be provided to Greece and Turkey with a $350,000,000 portion of it to be allocated to Greece. What were his reasons for such relief assistance? How did he defend the purpose of this proposal?
3) Herman Graebe paints a morbid seen of one of the most horrific assassinations of Jewish people from Dubno, Ukraine. Despite the mortifying and foul situation these families unfortunately had to live and die through, Graebe also gives us an account of the hope and sense of calm these people held towards their awaited fate. Surrounded by dead, almost dead, and fully alive yet spiritually and emotionally suffering victims, and the gory sites, what was it that made these incredibly resilient people so strong and calm in a time of shock and trauma?
Below please find some questions on the portion of Chapter 6 on the Great Depression from Capitalism by James Fulcher that we read. These were written by your classmate, Alex Ashurov. Please answer one of these with a response of a paragraph or more.
1) According to Fulcher, the 1930’s demonstrated the capitalist world economy’s vulnerability to crisis. What does he say are the main sources of said vulnerability?
2) Fulcher states that there was a period of steady growth lasting from the middle of the 19th century to the First World War. What problems arose in the 1920s that pointed to a slowing of this growth? In retrospect, what were some of the major signs of the oncoming depression?
3) When the Great Depression started, domestic production within countries faced major crises. What were the actions that governments took regarding foreign competition? What did the U.S. government do? How did these measures affect the world as a whole?
Below please find some web questions on Chapter 34 of the textbook, “An Age of Anxiety,” written by your classmate, Sheri Greenbaum. As always, please write a response of at least a paragraph for one of these questions.
1) If the United States initially came out of the Great War economically stable, how did it manage to fall into the worst economic depression history has ever seen a mere decade later?
2) The “Age of Anxiety” was also a time of new forms of thought in the modern world: artists, musicians, psychologists, and scientists developed ideas that left old beliefs behind and moved toward new, revolutionary ideas. How did such powerful human advances such as these lead to many negative consequences around the world?
3) What are the differences between socialism and fascism? Why are war communism and militarism unsuccessful strategies in creating successful forms of their respective government systems?
Painting: Portrait of the Journalist Sylvia von Harden by Otto Dix (1926)
1) Why did Freud start his article with the theory of wishful dreams? Do you think this piece would lose its meaning without this introduction?
2) What is Freud’s overall position on the “good” and “bad” of human nature? How can this theory be applied to the imperialists?
1) Presently, imperial societies and empires are thought not be as present as they were during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. One country that might be considered an empire, as Professor O’Malley expressed, is the United States. What other countries do you consider to have imperialistic motives? What are the characteristics that these countries have that make them imperialistic?
2) Imperialism seems always bring along with it a negative connotation. Imperialism often creates wars which lead to many deaths, while imperial powers tend to exploit the land, people, and resources while colonizing. Imperialism seems to end up doing a lot of harm. Can you think of any benefits that imperialism creates for either or both the colonizing or colonized country? What are some countries that have experienced these benefits?
3) Darwinism is a biological theory that explains evolution through the idea of “the survival of the fittest,” which, to put it simply, is to say species with superior traits outlast those with inferior traits. How did people use such this theory to justify European imperialism? Does such thinking still persist today?
4) Jules Ferry Reading: Jules Ferry felt in order for France to be a high-ranking global power, it must colonize certain places. He offered a few reasons why France should engage in colonial expansion. What are his justifications given for colonial expansion? Do you condone them? Why or why not?
Below please find some questions on the utopian socialists about whom we read in Chapter 29. The questions are written by your classmate, Dinghua Zeng
1) What social and economic developments prompted some nineteenth-century critics to formulate ideas for alternative economic systems?
2) Have any nineteenth-century utopian socialist ideas ever been realized? Is it possible that there are some that might be realized in the future?