Web Questions for the Truman Doctrine and Eyewitness to Einsatz Executions

Below please find some insightful web questions for two of the primary source readings from Shaping of the Modern World written by Jemima Georges that we are doing for Monday:

The Truman Doctrine:

1) President Harry S. Truman said that “the United Nations is designed to make possible lasting freedom and independence for all its members”  (Shaping,pg. 389)  After World War II this international agreement of unity served as a “world police” to ensure the peace and security of nation states. What contrasted between the UN pact and the League of Nations from post WWI? What factors contributed to the success of the UN compared to the League of Nations?

2) Well aware of the financial/economic implications that the Truman Doctrine would have for the U.S., President Truman took the risk and and announced for $400,000,000 to be provided to Greece and Turkey with a $350,000,000 portion of it to be allocated to Greece. What were his reasons for such relief assistance? How did he defend the purpose of this proposal?

Eyewitness Account of Einsatz Executions:

3) Herman Graebe paints a morbid seen of one of the most horrific assassinations of Jewish people from Dubno, Ukraine. Despite the mortifying and foul situation these families unfortunately had to live and die through, Graebe also gives us an account of the hope and sense of calm these people held towards their awaited fate. Surrounded by dead, almost dead, and fully alive yet spiritually and emotionally suffering victims, and the gory sites, what was it that made these incredibly resilient people so strong and calm in a time of shock and trauma?


7 Comments on “Web Questions for the Truman Doctrine and Eyewitness to Einsatz Executions”

  1. Niara Calliste says:

    President Truman provided relief assistance in such a large quantity in money mainly to secure the U.S. interests. At this point communism was taking over fast and to preserve democracy in Greece, he provided them with the relief fund, soldiers and training for the indigenous people in Greece to police the people. Turkey would most likely follow in the footsteps of Greece which is why it was kind of made into an example. In a way it was as if America was claiming land to stave off the spread of communism. He defended his actions by claiming he was protecting the status quo of the Charter of the United Nations which the Soviet Union had violated by coercing nations to fall under totalitarian regimes. President Truman argued that to maintain the freedom that America stood for it would be best to help “free and independent nations maintain their freedom” (Shaping, pg. 409).

  2. Keisha Jones-Charles says:

    Response to #2

    The resistance relief to Greece and Turkey by the Truman doctrine was a way to get popular support by the remaining countries who had dealt with communist aggression. According to to Truman, they deserved the aid they recieved due to their struggles. His reasons for defending his purpose was that the United States should show some sympathy and “support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures” (http://jefferson.library.millersville.edu/reserve/GOVT355_Bookmiller_TrumanDoctrine.pdf)

  3. Lindsay Poulakos says:

    3) Although it is truly difficult, if not impossible, to even try to imagine the state of mind of those who faced death during the Einsatz Executions, it can be assumed that one reason for their calm stature was so that they remain dignified and strong for their families. As described in this chilling account, many families were killed along with their young children, therefore the older victims might have kept their composure so they would not frighten the children, and instead gave them comfort in the prospect of heaven. Their calm nature could also be a sort of final action–that even in the face of death, the victims showed more civility and humanity than their wild executioners. Even after viciously inhumane treatments, humiliation and brutal atrocities, the silence of the victims proved they were not lowly beings as the Germans believed, but were a brave and noble people, who’s faces would haunt the minds of German soldiers for the rest of their lives.

  4. Aleksandr Ashurov says:

    After WW2 there were two superpowers taking charge of the world. The U.S. was one side while the USSR was on the other. Each had drastically different views, political and an economic stance. The U.S. was aware of the communist parties policing Greece and Turkey with aggression. In response to a potential threat to democracy, Truman acted by initiating the Truman Doctrine. It was meant to be a release effort for the countries stuck in between the two forces and sort of a promise to remain democratic. The U.S. really feared the spread of communism all around the globe, and its potential threat to democracy and capitalism.

  5. Mary Fahmy says:

    The League of Nations and the United Nations had similar goals and targets, but only one failed and the other took over and succeeded. The United Nations (UN) replaced the League of Nations due to its failure to prevent WW1. The UN still exists today because of its great success. The League was not allowed to use force or violate the member states’, independence. The general goals included the establishment of international conferences to promote cooperation and peace among nations and security. The goals of the UN include maintaining world peace, developing friendly international relations, and striving to improve the well being of all, eliminating poverty, disease, and illiteracy, stopping environmental destruction, encouraging respect for ones rights and freedoms, encouraging collective security, and working efficiently when dealing with a conflict rather than avoiding the conflicts entirely.

  6. Natalia Roldan says:

    The League of Nations came out of World War I in attempt to prevent another world war from happening. However, it was very unsuccessful. The Allied powers, who won World War I, gave themselves the ultimate benefit and authority over the League, leaving many countries unsatisfied. This led a majority of the Axis powers to drop out from the League all together, including Japan, Italy, Spain and others. This made it extremely hard to evoke global collaboration for peace in the world. Germany, who was viewed as the antagonist of World War I, was not invited in the League and suffered tremendously once the war ended. This led to the rise of Adolf Hilter and World War II, thus making the League of Nations a complete failure.

  7. The primary reason Truman provides in his request for relief assistance is the defense of the free world. He opens his speech by reminding Congress that ensuring that the United States and its allies exist free of coercion (specifically communism) was one of the “primary goals” of the US foreign policy. His claim is that any nation that falls to communism will undermine international peace, and therefore threaten the security of the US. Truman’s request was not only a request to aid Turkey and Greece, it was a plea for an investment in the future of the United States. Since the Monroe Doctrine, the U.S. has posited itself as a defender of global freedom and democracy, despite its tendency to colonize and act in its own economic interests. Truman himself says it: providing monetary relief and military support in Greece and Turkey would serve to protect the non-static status quo in which the US could enjoy being a dominant global power.


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